Sardines ("pilchards") are nutrient-rich, small, oily fish widely consumed by humans and as forage fish by larger fish species, seabirds, and marine mammals.

Based on TCM, sardines can be used to:

  1. supplements qi, yang, and blood
  2. warms stomach and spleen
  3. supplements kidneys

The preparation methods of sardines are deep-fried, fried, grilled, or boiled.

Sardines contain protein, fat, minerals, and are a source of omega-3 fatty acids.

Some indications that can be reduced by sardines are:

  * Stomach and spleen vacuity: lack of appetite, lack of strength, indigestion, edema.

  * Kidney network vacuity: impotence, decreased libido, back pain and weakness, sinew, and bone weakness.